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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. This item was a complete waste of time, effort and money. Also, the craftsmanship was well below shoddy.

The pages and spine of the book came apart after only 3 days One person found this helpful. This text is a detailed guide for getting from point "A" to point "Z" in the writing process.

What I appreciate most is the guiding questions that prompt you to think broadly and deeply about your own work! There are many books filled with dissertation advice out there and, sadly, much of it is subpar. I needed a straightforward line of attack to get moving as I draft my formal proposal. A guide to Planning, Research, and Writing , by R. Murray Thomas and Dale L. Brubaker, fulfilled the search through a no-nonsense nuts-and-bolts process to succinct writing.

In my case, I needed specific examples for the proposal stage: This was the only text out a series of rejected titles that finally provided the information I was seeking. Again, this is not a "Dr.

It is well written in a conversational voice and makes the process of understanding and writing a good research paper manageable. I would highly recommend this book to all students. See all 4 reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.

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Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. The term doctor derives from Latin, meaning "teacher" or "instructor". The right to grant a licentia docendi i. The Third Council of the Lateran of guaranteed the access—at that time largely free of charge—of all able applicants. Applicants were tested for aptitude. The right was granted by the pope to the University of Paris in where it became a universal license to teach licentia ubiquie docendi. The so-called "professional, vocational, or technical curriculum" in contrast to liberal arts of the Middle Ages included only theology , law , and medicine.

The doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany in the 17th century likely c. The doctorate of philosophy adheres to this historic convention, even though the degrees are not always for the study of philosophy.

Chris Park explains that it was not until formal education and degree programs were standardized in the early 19th century that the doctorate of philosophy was reintroduced in Germany as a research degree, [8] abbreviated as Dr. Germany, however, differentiated then in more detail between doctorates in philosophy and doctorates in the natural sciences, abbreviated as Dr. University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild.

The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts" was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations. University degrees, including doctorates, were originally restricted to men. The use and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and is subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders.

After that time the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread. Today, a research doctorate PhD or its equivalent as defined in the USA by the NSF is generally a prerequisite for an academic career, although many recipients do not work in academia.

Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward. The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M. The MD, as the standard qualifying degree in medicine, gave that profession the ability through the American Medical Association , established in for this purpose to set and raise standards for entry into professional practice. The modern research degree, in the shape of the German-style Ph. In the UK, research doctorates initially took the form of higher doctorates, first introduced at Durham University in However it took a long time to be accepted, not replacing the Bachelor of Laws LLB until the s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree.

The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa. The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU, and involves either a new long thesis a second book or a portfolio of research publications.

The habilitation highest available degree demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding. The habilitation follows the research doctorate, and in Germany it can be a requirement for appointment as a Privatdozent or professor.

Since the Middle Ages , the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities has proliferated throughout the world. Practice varies from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor", use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation.

Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is publishable, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal.

The best-known research degree title, in the English-speaking world , is Doctor of Philosophy abbreviated Ph. Other research doctorates include the Doctor of Education Ed. Criteria for research doctorates vary, but typically require completion of a substantial body of original research, which may be presented as a single thesis or dissertation, or as a portfolio of shorter project reports thesis by publication.

The submitted dissertation is assessed by a committee of examiners, and is then typically defended by the candidate during an oral examination viva in the UK and India by the committee. Candidates may also be required to complete graduate-level courses in their field, as well as study research methodology. Criteria for admission to doctoral programs varies. The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more.

Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and in a few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at doctoral level and the doctoral degree PhD as a four-year qualification.

A higher tier of research doctorates may be awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a particularly high standard. Examples include the Doctor of Science D. The habilitation teaching qualification facultas docendi or "faculty to teach" under a university procedure with a thesis and an exam is commonly regarded as belonging to this category in Germany , Austria , France , Liechtenstein , Switzerland , Poland , etc. The degree developed in Germany in the 19th century "when holding a doctorate seemed no longer sufficient to guarantee a proficient transfer of knowledge to the next generation.

In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe , the degree gives the venia legendi , Latin for "permission for lecturing," or the ius docendi , "right of teaching" a specific academic subject at universities for a lifetime.

Depending on the country, professional doctorates may either be research degrees at the same level as PhDs or professional degrees with little or no research content.

In contrast to the US, many countries reserve the term "doctorate" for research degrees and if, as in Canada and Australia, professional degrees bear the name "Doctor of In Argentina the doctorate doctorado [63] is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.

It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution. The degree is conferred after a successful dissertation defence. Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only.

In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge. The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external.

After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor Doctor followed by the main area of specialization, e. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc. All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free mandated by the Brazilian constitution.

The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between and USD. A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US Assistant Professor. Progression to full professorship known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years. In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress usually by seniority to the rank of Associate Professor then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships.

In recent years somme initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates e. Denmark offers four levels of degrees: Doctor Philosophiae , which is the higher doctorate. In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium ex auditorio. In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by Al-Azhar University est.

The Medical doctorate abbreviated as M. It takes on average three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate. After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship house officer , physicians and surgeons earn the M.

Geriatrics means a doctorate in Geriatrics , which is equivalent to a Ph. All universities have the right to award doctorates. Entrance is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied.

Usually, a prospective student discusses their plans with a professor. If the professor agrees to accept the student, the student applies for admission. The professor may recruit students to their group.

The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through private scholarships. Funding is more available for natural and engineering sciences than in letters. Sometimes, normal work and research activity are combined. Prior to introduction of the Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks 1, hours of formal coursework.

The requirement was removed in , leaving the decision to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties or individual professors.

The duration of graduate studies varies. The dissertation can either be a monograph or it an edited collection of 3 to 7 journal articles. Students unable or unwilling to write a dissertation may qualify for a licentiate degree by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually summarizing one year of research.

When the dissertation is ready, the faculty names two expert pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside the university.

During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and respond with modifications. When granting this permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert, with at least a doctorate. In all Finnish universities, long tradition requires that the printed dissertation hang on a cord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days prior to for the dissertation defence.

The doctoral dissertation takes place in public. The opponent and the candidate conduct a formal debate, usually wearing white tie , under the supervision of the thesis supervisor.

Family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community customarily attend the defence. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins with an approximately minute popular lecture lectio praecursoria , that is meant to introduce laymen to the thesis topic.

The opponent follows with a short talk on the topic, after which the pair critically discuss the dissertation. The proceedings take two to three hours. Any member of the public then has an opportunity to raise questions, although this is rare.

Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the candidate drink coffee with the public. Usually, the attendees of the defence are given the printed dissertation. Usually, the candidate invites their family, colleagues and collaborators. Doctoral graduates are often Doctors of Philosophy filosofian tohtori , but many fields retain their traditional titles: Exceptions may be granted by the university governing board, but this is uncommon, and usually due to other work and expertise considered equivalent.

Before three research doctorates existed in France: After , only one type of doctoral degree remained: This diploma is similar in spirit to the older State doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems. Today, the doctorate doctorat is a research-only degree.

It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by the minister of higher education and research. Only public institutions award the doctorate.

It can be awarded in any field of study. The normal duration is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctoral work. While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than pages, and often substantially more.

Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship. The most well known is the Contrat Doctoral 4, granted every year with a gross salary of euros per months as of September Since candidates follow in-service training, but there is no written examination for the doctorate. The candidate has to write a thesis that is read by two external reviewers. The head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend the thesis, after considering the external reviews. The jury members are designated by the head of the institution.

The maximum number of jury members is 8. The defense generally lasts 45 minutes in scientific fields, followed by 1 — 2 and a half hours of questions from the jury or other doctors present. The defense and questions are public. The jury then deliberates in private and then declares the candidate admitted or "postponed".

The latter is rare. New regulations were set in and do not award distinctions. The diploma is a first-degree. Doctorate degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded via a process called Promotion "promotion". The concept of a US-style professional doctorate as an entry-level professional qualification does not exist. However, in medicine, "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.

The European Research Council decided in that those Dr. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German instead of a general degree for all fields e. The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations are available, many of them rare or no longer in use. For addressing, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e.

Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However leaving out the designation is only allowed, when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which has to be indicated by Dr. Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents. The title is not mandatory. The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned.

Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as Dres. Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e. In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis Inauguraldissertation , completing a course of study, and the habilitation thesis Habilitationsschrift , which opens the road to a professorship.

It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally. It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities facultas docendi. The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject venia legendi. This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining Privatdozent PD and employment as a full university Professor.

With the introduction of Juniorprofessuren —around —as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities with tenure , Habilitation is no longer the only university career track. In India , doctorates are offered by universities. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees.

Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most North Indian universities, coursework duration and thesis is 2 years and in most South Indian universities is 3 years. The most common doctoral degree is Ph. Sc Doctor of Science. Nationally important schools such as Indian Institute of Management , [84] National Institute of Industrial Engineering [85] call their doctoral programmes fellow programmes.

D degree Doctor of Pharmacy takes 6 years. Italy uses a three-level degree system. This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a " dottorato di ricerca " Ph. Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr.

Many professional titles, such as ingegnere engineer are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination esame di stato , and registration in the relevant professional association. The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Until the s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies.

The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals. It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities.

This curriculum is professionally oriented, [99] but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license. All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam Shihou shiken , attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi. The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma not a degree.

In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the s. In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a kandidaats candidate diploma in two years. The candidate diploma was all but abolished by

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A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Ninth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing) Ninth Edition.

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